Pathoanat pre-oral exams

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Pathoanat pre-oral exams

Post  Admin on Fri Jun 03, 2011 11:51 pm

Please put as much as you can remember! cheers

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Written Test

Post  Mohd Razeen Roslan on Mon Jun 06, 2011 4:06 pm

for the written test, 40-70% comes from the past paper. You just hv to find the right answer.
Some extra Qs that was not in the past year papers (I think):
1. something about neutrophils
2. giant cell of langhans
3. primary lymphoma of gastric
4. spherocytosis
5. the cause for spleen to rupture.
6. felty's syndrome
7. astrocytoma
8. fatty streak
9. oat cell carcinoma (5 years survival rate)
10. sqamous cell carcinoma (5 years survival rate)
11. ovarian malignant tumor
12. Otitis media

Im sorry I can only remember some of it.
Good luck guys!!!!!!!!

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past year

Post  Betty on Tue Jun 21, 2011 6:49 pm

1. Atrophy of muscle is associated with
immobilisation
workload
neurogenic injury

2. Diseases which produce granulomas
T. pallidum
M. TBC
M. leprae
S. aureus

3. Intracerebral bleeding caused by
cerebral infarct
rupture of anuersymoif circle of Willis

4. Which of the following is a germ cell tumour
Krukenberg
Brenner
Choricarcinoma
Yolk sac tumour

5. Leprosy
Is caused by Mycobacterium bovinum
TB kind of leprosy is worse than the leprous type.
Causes autamputation of fingers

6. Ionizing radiation is association with an increase in cancer in following people
Plutonium miners
Nagasaki 1945
Aniline dye workers
Luminous watch face painters

7. Healing of fracture of bone is slowed by
Stabilisation
Infection
Interposed by soft tissue

8. Features in granulation tissue
Fibroblasts
Granulomas

9. Gynecomastia
Is usually unilateral
Occurs with endocrine disorders
From prostate therapy

10. Fibroadenoma
More in thrid decade
Grows rapidly during pregnancy
Is usually solitary

11. Version of anuersyms question
Will it rupture if > 60 mm

12. Cancer of oesophagus
More in people in Iran
Smoking association
Association with achalasia
Prognosis question

13. Question on correctly matching tumours
EBV - lyphoma in Europe
Wilsm tumour - embryonal kidney tumour
Grawitz - adrenocortical tumour

14. Wilsons disease
Autosomal recessive
Caused by deficiency of copper
See it with Kayser-Fleisch rings

15. Pituitary
Growth hormone produces acromegaly if before puberty
Somatotrophs produce GH
Most functional tumours produce corticotrophs
Non-functional tumours produce hypopituitarism

16. Lymphogranuloma venereum
Caused by T. pallidum
Metastasises to inguinal nodes
Can identify it by aspiration of contents in dark field microscopy

17. Which of the following are caused by viruses
Conyloma acuminata
Condyloma lata
Molluscum contagiosum

18. Crohns Disease
Superficial inflammation and ulceration
Mainly in ileum
Granulomas in lymph nodes
Causes constriction

19. Pulmonary Hypertension caused by
massive emboli
Wegeners graulomatosis

20. Shock is associated with
Acute tubular necrosis
Acute Pancreatitis
Diffuse profilferative glomerulonephritis

21. Endometrial carcinoma
Does not invade the myometrium
Obesity
Taking Oral contraceptive pills

22. Astrocytoma
If well differeniated is called Glioblastoma
From neurons
well circumscribed
Is most common glioma

23. Gastric carcinoma
Malignant lymphoma is rarest in GIT
If within mucosa and submucosa, prognosis is 90%
Could originate from maltoma

24. Penis Carcinoma
Sq cell carcinoma
Inc in Jews over Muslims

25. Primary causes for Atherosclerosis
Diabetes Insipidus
Smoking
Atheroma
Hypolipidema

26. Leiomyoma
Most common tumor of female genital track

27. ALL leukemias (same as Aadils)

28. Ischemia is caused by following.
Vasculitis
Atheroma
Spasm

29. Anal cancer
Squamous cell carcinoma
Homosexuals
Adenocarcinoma

30. Polycystic Kidney Disease.
Autosomal dominant
Defective uterine bud
Unilateral

31. Tetralogy of fallot.
ASD
VSD
Right Ventriclar hypertrophy

32. Cholera
Caused by Shigella sonnie
Causes reduced activity of adenalate cyclase
Electrolyte Imbalance

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more past year

Post  Betty on Tue Jun 21, 2011 6:55 pm

1- Gatekeeper cell
2- Organ with 2 types of circulations

gout: increase in uric acid,presence of subcutaneous tophi there was an option which said happens in lower sosioeconomy which is wrong because its called the 'rich man disease'

function of gatekeeper cells
-read from wiki under care taker gene
-Caretaker genes provide genome stability by preventing the accumulation of these mutations
-gatekeeper gene : gatekeeper genes encode a system of checks and balances that monitor cell division and death(eg p53)

organs that have 2 circulations-lung and liver

effects of HIV on the brain

learn the prognosis (percentage value) for gallbladder carcinoma, lung cancer( for the subtypes)

histological appearance of MI after 24 hours

seminoma

skin cell carcinoma-sensitive to radiotherapy

what causes steatosis( cant remember the options)


1) Intraductal Papilloma- bloody nipple discharge

2) In AML -hypercellular bone marrow
-abnormal bleeding

3) Germ cell tumors (the names of all of them)

4) Acute purulent meningitis -cloudy csf
-protein increase and glu decrease
-increase protein, normal gly
-chronic, both decrease

5) Parathyroid hyperfunction-more females
-single or all glands
-more in upper glands

6) cystic fibrosis -AD/ AR
-pancreatitis

7) HIV - brain lymphoma
- toxoplasmosis

Pyelonephritis -preg
-man less than 30
-DM, rena; stones

9) Multiple Sclerosis -young age
-women
-presence of protein in CSF
-effects on brain

10) ALL- Children, AML-middle age, CML- Adult

11) Astrocytoma- glioma, affects hemispheres , adult, mature
-glioblastoma multiforme survival 1 yr

http://www.servimg.com/image_preview.php?i=27&u=11654342

http://i65.servimg.com/u/f65/11/65/43/42/photo_10.jpg


version 4:

hyper/hypoparathyroidism
-decrease in blood phospate level
-causes tetany
-

small cell lung ca
-cigar smoke
-cigarette smoke
-uranium
-asbestos

Hodgkin lymphoma symptoms
-pel ebstein fever
-splenomegaly
-painless lympadenopathy

pneumocystis carinii
-life threatening
-common in immunocompetent
-produce pinkish fluid in alveoli
-

Parkinson disease
-nerve deafness
-peak before 30
-bradykinesia

fatty streak
-appearance in 1 year of life
-smooth muscle something

amyloidosis
-AL complicate chronic osteomyelitis
-15% of ppl with multiple myeloma
-AA something
-Alpha helical chains proteins

alphafetoprotein found in
-hepatic carcinoma
- other 3 choices which i think are not true

what cause rupture of spleen
-infectious mononucleosis
-hemolytic anemia
-car accident

osteoporosis
-deficiency of vit A
-in cushings disease
-demineralization

subdural hematoma
-in older ppl
-artery
-may be asymptomatic
-veins

which def correct
-plasia -disordered growth
-itis - inflammation
-hypo - level below normal
-(????) - level above normal << this one is wrong

myxoma of the heart
-most freq primary tumor
-more in RA than in LA
-ischemia in lower leg
-form embolus..

centrilobular emphysema
-due to smoking
-due to alpha 1 antitryp def
-

h pylori
-most common in body
-chronic atrophic gastritis
-gram negative

blue nevi
-may turn malignant
-arrest at intradermal junction
-multiple
-

Gonococcal Prostatitits
-due to g+ diplococci
-homosexual
-causes all the -itis in man

diverticular
-vesico-rectal
-spasm of smooth muscle
-

acute effect of radiation exposure
-diarrhea
-anemia
-leukemia

which one are neoplasm
-bronchial cyst
-hydatid cyst
-teratoma
-cystadenoma

multiple sclerosis
-irregular demyelinated region in brain/sc
-regular demyelinated region in brain/sc
-increase in protein in csf associated to globulin something
-more freq in women/men

epstein barr virus
-causes burkitt lymphoma
-infectious mononucleosis
-others 2 are wrong

which are caused by fungi
-aspergillosis
-onchocerciasis
-toxoplasmosis
-other -sis

what cause rhinitis
-h. influenza
-coronavirus
-cmv
-rhinovirus

hep c
-rna damage virus?? -something like that
-blood transfusion
-focal-oral route
-chronic liver failure/cirrhosis

squamous skin carcinoma
-radiosensitive
-more in face, neck, back
-radiation
-

granuloma
-central ring nuclei surrounded by pale cytoplasm
-irregular nuclei
-

TB in GIT:
more in the small intestine
produces a histological picture easily ID from crohn
causes obstruction
reduced due to pasteurization of milk in certain countries.

gynecomastia
-endocrine disorder
-bilateral
-prostate therapy
-men before 30

parathyroid carcinoma/adenoma
-usually in superior
-produce calcitonin
-multiple
-solitary

gallbladder stone
-laminated in mixed
-mostly cholesterol stone
-single pigment stone
-in men/women

Meckel's diverticulum

Hepatocellular carcinoma

Causes of arterial embolism

seminoma

Melanomas

Kidney Tumours

Version of anuersyms question

TB in GIT:

Dissection Aneurysm:

Laryngeal tumours

in ALL

Gall bladder cancer

Hypersensitivity type 3

Astrocytoma

Atherosclerosis

Paget’s disease of the nipple

prostate hyperplasia

prostate carcinoma

graves-basedow disease

di George syndrome

PAN

Hyperplasia of the thyroid gland

Cystic Fibrosis

germ cell tumour


Squamous Metaplasia can occur in:
A) In urinary bladder in chronic cystitis
B) In prostate around areas of Infarkt
C) In the bronchi of a smoker
D) In the appendix in appendicitis

The problem with this one is the only answer options which included C (which is obviously right) were A, B and C are correct or C and D are correct. I asked Asmund about this one and he didn't know the answer to it either.


Factors which predispose lung infection:
non motile cilia
congenital agammaglobulinemia
something else really obvious
coma (I put all were right except this, but I'm not sure)


Parathyroid Hyperplasia:
Involves single glands only (in adenoma)
three more options which were all wrong - including that they tend to be in upper glands. I wasn't sure if this was false going into the exam but the answer options made it clear that it is.


Pulmonary Hypertension can occur in:
People living at high altitude + 3 other options (sorry)


Cystic Fibrosis:
Auto Recessive
Affects Lungs
Causes Chronic Bronchitis
is a Transmembrane Conductance defect

All are true.


Patau syndrome:
microsomething (true)
prominent epicanthial folds (false. They are present but small)
Polydactaly (true)
Affects 1 in 1000 (false)


Potter's Syndrome:
Due to failure of ureter bud to develop (false, I think. My embryo is not too good, but I'm pretty sure it's entire kidney agenesis and that's failure of more than just the uretal bud)
causes stillbirth (I put true for no other reason than I've seen a picture of a dead baby with it in Robbins)
causes lung hypoplasia (I also put true)


There were some really basic definitions.
Plasia - disorder of growth - correct.
itis - inflammation - correct.
hypo - decrease - correct.
meta - increase - incorrect.


Anal cancer:
can be sq. cell (correct)
can be adenocarc (correct)
higher in promiscuous homosexuals (correct, just ask Nimesh)
occurs in association with condyloma accuminatum (not sure but I said no, it doesn't)

Gonococcal Proctitis:
More in gays (yup)
caused by gram positive diplococci (nope, G-)
characterised by chronic inflam (nope, acute)


There were a couple of questions on carcinoma of the gall bladder.


Which of these are germ cell:
only yolk sack. The others were like Brenners, etc.


Meckel's Diverticulum:
Proximal small intestine - false
ileal ulceration - true
mimics appendicitis -true
due to vitelline duct something - true


Type III Immune Complex Hypersens:
Regulated by T cells - false, the clue is in the question.
Myasthenia Gravis - false
SLE - true
Glomnephritis - true

Arterial Embolism can be from
Venous thrombosis - correct, due to paradoxical embolism, but more importantly because of the answer combinations.
Prosthetic PULMONARY valves - false
Atheroma - correct
L. Atrial Myxoma - correct


Hereditary Spherocytosis:
Associated with CHOLESTEROL gallstones - false
I can't remember the rest

Familial Hypertension
Due to HDL receptor defect
Heterozygotes have no effect
Homozygotes can have an M.I. before 20 y.o.
Present in 10% of population

I have no idea. I guessed the first and third, but that's probably wrong.


In DM:
Amyloidosis
Pyelonephritis
Glom Scler
Periph vasc defects

The last three are correct

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version 4

Post  Betty on Tue Jun 21, 2011 7:54 pm

monday i have got version 4.

i would say many of us havent taken the mcqs yet, so i just post some notes for u guys.

* alot of the questions were almost the same with the past paper
* the answers are quite similar...but not exactly the same...
* going through the past paper will definitely help you!!! go through as many as possible!!!!
* but be careful with the correct answers in the past paper, some of them are wrong!!!! use wiki, google, hellers nots, books to make sure u know the correct answers.
* when u study, try to study something extra abt the question too... coz some of the answers are not in the past paper, but if u have general knowledge abt it, u might be able to choose the right combination.



*DM type 1

*Jaundice
level of unconj or conj billirubin level in the blood in mol/l (not in mg/dl) in the test, i think i was noted as 40 mol/l or sumthin

*Centrilobular Emphysema
upper lobes affected
antitripsin defficiency (i dont think this is associated to centrilobular type emphysema)

*Padget disease
duct sclerosis or periductal infl?
bloody discharge
associated with eczema (i think this was rite, coz its not eczema, but often misdiagnosed, it causes itchiness n all)


*Gynecomastia
endocrine disorder
prostate therapy

*Fibroadenoma
firm?
solitary
pregnancy
peak before 3rd decade

*Cancer of esophagus
not in iran (wrong, it is often in iran)
rarely associated with smoking association (it is associated with smoking)
achalasia (yes)

from the answer combination, i think smoking was a bit tricky...the combination kinda tells u that it is RAREly associated....so maybe it is ? donno...but im sure achalatia n iran one helps u to choose the correct answer


* EBV - lyphoma in europe
wilms tumor - renal embrionic tumor
Grawitz - adenocortical tumore (wrong, renal cell carcinoma)

*Wilson diesase
Kayser-fleisch ring
deficiency of copper
autosomal rescessive

*pituitary question
the same question with the past paper

*lymphogranuloma nevereum
similar with the past paper

*Virus questions
condyloma acuminata
comdyloma late (wrong)
molluscosis?? - molluscum contagiosum

*Clostridium
gram +
gibrous necrosis?? i don remember much abut this...

*Dissectoin aneurysm
often in children (i wasnt sure...)
nothing to do with atherosclerotic plague

*pyelonephritis
pregnancy

*osteoblastic bone leision
prostate cancer

*Prostatic hyperplasia
benign
central part?

*gallbladder stone
laminated
pigment?
rokitansky sinus

* AIDs
CMV
karposi's tumor
toxoplasmosis

*MI after 24 hrs or within 24 hrs?
neutrophil infiltration
total necrosis

*Pulmonary HT
massive embolism
wageners granulomatosis?
shunt
high altitude
emphysema?

*radiation n professions
the same with the past paper

*cause of lung cancer
same

*multple myeloma
STUDY about protein!!! there were 2 protein associated options
bence jones ptotein in urine
protein or amyloidosis?

*germ cell carcinoma in ovary
the same

*anal cancer
the same or similar

*penis cancer
similar

*parathyroid
in upper lobes (wrong, equally affected. i thinnk!)

*parathyroid hyperfunction
tetany
phosphate level decreased

*otitis media
tympanic damage or somthin
auricle somethin
meningitis
utricle somethin

*FAP
chromsome 6 (wrong, its 5)

*leiomyoma
quadriceps
uterus
urinary bladder
breast

*helicobacter pylori
the same

*blue nevus
multiple
in deep dermis?

*subdural hematoma/bleeding
some are same

*hypersensitivity type III
same

*thyroid cancer
papillary is more often than follicular

*neoplasm or tumor
branchial cyst (no)
cystic teratoma
hydratid cyst (no)

*patau
almost same

*EBV
same
cervical carcinoma (dont think so)

*potters syndrome
renal agenesis, fetus malformation
pulmonary hypoplasia
deficiency of ureteral bud

*carcinoid syndrome
serotnin production
can be in GIT
flusing of the skin?

*VitB1 defficiency
cardio problem
encephalopathy something abt neuron
associated with alcoholism (alcohol reduces apatite, that causes beriberi)

*leprosy
same

*di george syndrome
same

*fungi
aspergius

*rhinitis
not CMV
same

*rupture of spleen
similar

*myasthenia gravis
similar

*diverticulum
weakened smooth muscle?
similar to appendicitis

*coelic diease
atrophy of villi

*addison diease

*cystic fibrosis
similar

*HCV
similar

*phylodes tumore

*Hodgkins or non-hodgkins...dont remember wihich

*definition of acantholysis, akanthosis....

*definition of mata, plasia....

* healing of bone fracture
same

* granulomatous disease
t. pallidum
tbc
m, leprae
s, aureus

*pheochromocytoma
neuroblastoma origin?
something aabout ganglionic?
retinoblastoma association?

*myxoma of heart?

*lymphogranuloma venereum
inguinal nodes

*Pancrease carcinoma
tuberculosis
increase/or decrease in Uk in 20th century

*Addison's disease
hyperparathyroidism

*esophagus one came up but options were : 1. rarely associated with smoking 2. not common in Iran 3. if it involves the wall...prognosis is good 4. dont rmb


If u have any questions, let me know!!!
Good luck everyone!!!!!!



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some more

Post  Betty on Wed Jun 22, 2011 4:14 am

Something about psamomma body n calcification or somethin
there were 2 answers regarding psammonna bodies in different questions...

these tumor could b the questions...
Papillary thyroid carcinoma
Papillary renal cell carcinoma
serous papillary ovarian adenocarcinoma (cystadenocarcinoma)
endometrial adenocarcinomas (Papillary serous carcinoma ~3%-4%)
meningioma
mesothelioma

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DONT FORGET!

Post  Betty on Wed Jun 22, 2011 4:16 am

Dont forget to go though the past paper in the dropbox!!!!!

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